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Page Last Updated: May 2 2016
Mustard Family
20 species
Wormseed Mustard
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Erysimum (Wallflower)
Species: Cheiranthoides
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Garlic Mustard (1st year)
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Alliaria
Species: Petiolata
Biennial - garlic odour - native to Europe
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Garlic Mustard (2nd year)
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Alliaria
Species: Petiolata
Biennial - garlic odour - native to Europe
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated March 12 2012
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Updated March 12 2012
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Annual - native to Eurasia
Field Pennycress
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Thlaspi
Species: Arvense
Annual - also known as Stinkweed - native to Eurasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated April 1 2016
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Updated July 2 2015
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American Sea Rocket
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Cakile
Species: Edentula
Annual - native to North America
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated June 27 2010
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Whitlow Grass
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Draba (also Erophila)
Species: Verna
Annual - also known as Spring Draba - 4 deeply notched
petals - a whitlow is a finger or toe infection which this
plant was supposedly able to cure - native to Eurasia
(possibly North America as well)
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated May 1 2011
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Dame's Rocket
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Hesperis
Species: Matronalis
Biennial / Perennial - similar to Garden Phlox but Dame's
Rocket has 4 petals (Phlox has 5) and alternate leaves
(opposite for Phlox) - native to Eurasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated November 17 2014
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Pennsylvania Bittercress
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Cardamine (Bittercress)
Species: Pensylvanica
Annual / Biennial / Perennial - Small-flowered Bittercress
(C. parviflora) has narrower leaflets with the terminal leaflet
being about the same width as the others - swamps and
wet meadows  - native to North America
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated February 12 2012
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Narrowleaf Bittercress
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Cardamine (Bittercress)
Species: Impatiens
Annual / Biennial - also known as Narrow-leaved
Bittercress - auricles (clasping lobes where the leaf joins
the stem) are distinctive - native to Eurasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated February 12 2012
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Large Toothwort
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Cardamine (Bittercress)
Species: Maxima
Perennial - C. maxima is a hybrid of C. diphylla and C.
concatenata (see below) - moist woods - native to eastern
North America
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated February 12 2012
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Wild Peppergrass
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Lepidium
Species: Virginicum
Annual / Biennial / Perennial - also known as Virginia
Pepperweed or Poor-man's Peppergrass - native to North
America
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated June 26 2013
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Garlic Mustard (seedlings)
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Alliaria
Species: Petiolata
Biennial - garlic odour - native to Europe
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated March 12 2012
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Shepherd's Purse
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Capsella
Species: Bursa-pastoris
Annual - similar to Peppergrass (see above) but with
triangular fruit capsules - native to Eurasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated March 12 2012
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Watercress
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Nasturtium
Species: Officinale
Perennial - binomial name formerly Rorippa nasturtium-
aquaticum - possibly Onerow Yellowcress? (N.
microphyllum) which is possibly a sub-species of N.
Officinale? - native to Eurasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated November 30 2012
Watercress
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Field Peppergrass
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Lepidium
Species: Campestre
Annual / Biennial - also known as Field Pepperweed or
Pepperwort - similar to Field Pennycress (see above) but
with smaller fruit capsules - native to Europe
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated November 14 2014
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Common Wintercress (2nd year)
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Barbarea (Yellowrocket)
Species: Vulgaris
Biennial - also known as Yellow Rocket - basal leaves have
1 to 4 pairs of small lateral lobes and a larger round
terminal lobe - the similar Early Wintercress (B. verna) has
more lateral lobes on the basal leaves - fields and waste
areas - native to Eurasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated February 2 2014
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Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Cuckoo Flower
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Cardamine (Bittercress)
Species: Pratensis
Perennial - also known as Cuckooflower, Lady's Smock -
basal leaflets are round, stem leaflets narrow - swamps,
wet meadows and woods - native to North America
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated January 25 2014
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Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Dog Mustard
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Erucastrum
Species: Gallicum
Annual / Biennial - also known as Hairy Rocket - lowermost
flowers develop in
axils of small leaves - lower stem has
small, downward pointing hairs - disturbed areas and
roadsides - native to Eurasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated July 2 2015
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Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Common Wintercress (1st year)
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Barbarea (Yellowrocket)
Species: Vulgaris
Biennial - also known as Yellow Rocket - basal leaves have
1 to 4 pairs of small lateral lobes and a larger round
terminal lobe - the similar Early Wintercress (B. verna) has
more lateral lobes on the basal leaves - fields and waste
areas - native to Eurasia
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated February 2 2014
More Common Wintercress
More Common Wintercress
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Garlic Mustard (1st year) - flower approx. 7 mm (2nd year) - leaves to 12 cm - height to 1 m (2nd year) - Lower Don Valley (Crother's Woods) - November 2008
Garlic Mustard (2nd year) - flower approx. 7 mm (2nd year) - leaves to 12 cm - height to 1 m (2nd year) - Humber Valley (Lambton Woods) - May 2009
American Sea Rocket - flower approx. 6 mm - leaves 7 to 13 cm - height to 50 cm - Lynde Shores Conservation Area (Whitby) - June 2010
Whitlow Grass - flower approx. 5 mm - leaves (basal only) to 2.5 cm - height to 20 cm - Marie Curtis Park - April 2011
Dame's Rocket - flower approx. 2.5 cm - fruit to 10 cm - leaves to 15 cm - height to 1 m - Samuel Smith Park - May 2012
Pennsylvania Bittercress - flower approx. 5 mm - fruit to 4 cm - leaves to 8 cm - height to 60 cm - West Don Valley (Sunnybrook Park) - May 2011
Narrowleaf Bittercress - flower approx. 4 mm - fruit to 3 cm - leaves to 10 cm - height to 75 cm - Lower Don Valley (Leaside) - May 2011
Large Toothwort - flower to 2.5 cm - leaves 4 to 10 cm - height to 40 cm - Lower Don Valley (Crother's Woods) - April 2010
Wormseed Mustard - flower approx. 1 cm - leaves 2 to 10 cm - height to 1 m - Don Valley Forks - June 2009
Wild Peppergrass - flower approx. 3 mm - fruit approx. 5 mm - leaves (upper) to 5 cm - height to 70 cm - High Park - June 2013
Field Pennycress - flower approx. 5 mm - fruit approx. 1 cm - leaves (basal) to 10 cm - height to 60 cm - Leslie Spit - October 2007
Garlic Mustard (seedlings) - flower approx. 7 mm (2nd year) - leaves to 12 cm - height to 1 m (2nd year) - Lower Don Valley (Crother's Woods) - May 2011
Shepherd's Purse - flower approx. 4 mm - fruit approx. 5 mm - leaves (basal) to 10 cm - height to 50 cm - Lower Don Valley (Crother's Woods) - May 2011
Watercress - flower approx. 6 mm - fruit to 2.5 cm - leaves to 15 cm (3 to 9 leaflets) - aquatic - height to 45 cm (erect or creeping) - Rouge Park - July 2012
Field Peppergrass - flower approx. 5 mm - fruit approx. 6 mm - leaves to 7 cm - height to 50 cm - West Don Valley (Wilket Creek Park) - May 2011
Common Wintercress - flower approx. 1 cm - fruit to 4 cm - basal leaves to 15 cm, upper leaves to 5 cm - height to 80 cm - Lower Don Valley (Crother's Woods) - June 2008
Cuckoo Flower - flower 1 to 2 cm - fruit to 3 cm - leaves to 12 cm - height to 50 cm - West Don Valley (Wilket Creek Park) - May 2013
Common Wintercress - flower approx. 1 cm - fruit to 4 cm - basal leaves to 15 cm, upper leaves to 5 cm - height to 80 cm - Lower Don Valley (Crother's Woods) - March 2012
Cutleaf Toothwort
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Cardamine (Bittercress)
Species: Concatenata
Perennial - before being included in the Cardamine genus
C. concatenata was known as Dentaria lacinata - moist
woods - native to eastern North America
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated May 14 2015
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Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Cutleaf Toothwort - flower approx 1 cm - leaves to 7.5 cm - height to 25 cm - Humber Valley (Etienne Brule Park) - May 2015
Tumble Mustard
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Sisymbrium
Species: Altissimum
Annual / Biennial - also known as Tall, Tall Tumbleweed or
Tall Hedge Mustard - leaves become longer and more
narrow with height - fields and waste areas - native to
Eurasia and north Africa
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated December 29 2013
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Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Tumble Mustard - flower approx. 1 cm - fruit to 10 cm - leaves to 25 cm - height to 30 cm - Leslie Spit - July 2013
Dog Mustard - flower approx. 1 cm - fruit to 5 cm - leaves to 20 cm - height to 60 cm - Don Mills - June 2015
Tall Wormseed Mustard
Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Erysimum (Wallflower)
Species: Hieraciifolium (also Virgatum)
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Biennial / Perennial - also known as European Wallflower -
fields, roadsides and waste areas - native to Eurasia
Updated July 3 2015
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Tall Wormseed Mustard - flower approx. 1 cm - leaves approx. 10 cm - height to 1.8 m - Lower Don Valley (Leaside) - June 2010
Hairy Bittercress
Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
Genus: Cardamine (Bittercress)
Species: Hirsuta
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida
Updated May 2 2016
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Order: Brassicales (also Capparales)
Hairy Bittercress - flower approx. 5 mm - fruit to 3 cm - leaves to 10 cm - height to 30 cm - East Don Valley (Milne Hollow) - April 2016
Annual / Biennial - Hairy Bittercress usually has 4 stamens
while the similar Woodland or Wavy Bittercress (C.
flexuosa) has 6 - fruit pods of Hairy Bittercress are
noticeably higher than the flowers while those of Woodland
Bittercress usually are not - disturbed areas, meadows and
fields - native to Eurasia