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Page Last Updated: April 23 2016
Pine Family
11 species
Eastern White Pine
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Pinus
Species: Strobus
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
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Updated November 20 2010
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Perennial tree - also known as Northern White Pine -
needles are in bundles of 5 (only 5-needled pine in eastern
North America) - formerly reserved for Royal Navy
shipmasts - native to eastern North America
Colorado Spruce
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Picea (Spruce)
Species: Pungens
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
More Colorado Spruce
Updated October 28 2009
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Perennial tree - also known as Blue or Silver Spruce - native
to the Rocky Mountains of the U.S.
Eastern Larch (Tamarack)
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Larix
Species: Laricina
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
More Eastern Larch
Updated October 25 2015
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Perennial tree - also known as Tamarack, Hackmatack,
American Larch, Juniper - native to northern North America -
deciduous conifer
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
Austrian Pines
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Pinus
Species: Nigra
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
More Austrian Pine
Updated January 1 2014
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Perennial tree - also known as European Black Pine -
needles are in bundles of 2 - Red pine (P. resinosa - see
above) also has needles in bundles of 2 which are not as
flexible or sharp-pointed as those of Austrian Pine - native
to southern Europe
Red Pine
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Pinus
Species: Resinosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
More Red Pine
Updated October 26 2014
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Perennial tree - also known as Norway Pine - needles are
in bundles of 2 - Austrian pine (P. nigra - see below) also
has needles in bundles of 2 which are more flexible and
sharper pointed than those of Red Pine - native to eastern
North America
Douglas-Fir
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Pseudotsuga ("False Hemlock")
Species: Menziesii
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
More Douglas-Fir
Updated April 23 2016
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Perennial tree -  2 varieties: P. menziesii var. franco (Coast
or Common Douglas-Fir) and P. menziesii var. glauca
(Interior or Blue Douglas-Fir) - not a true fir - native to
western North America
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
Scots Pine
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Pinus
Species: Sylvestris
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
More Scots Pine
Updated March 21 2014
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Perennial tree - also known as Scotch Pine - needles are
twisted and in bundles of 2 - Red pine (P. resinosa - see
above) and Austrian pine (P. nigra - see above) also have
needles in bundles of 2 which are much longer - native to
Europe and Asia
White Spruce
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Picea (Spruce)
Species: Glauca
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
More White Spruce
Updated March 22 2014
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Perennial tree - also known as Canadian, Skunk, Cat or
Pasture Spruce - native to northern North America
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
Norway Spruce
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Picea (Spruce)
Species: Abies
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
More Norway Spruce
Updated March 22 2014
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Perennial tree - also known as European Spruce - drooping
secondary branches are distinctive - native to Europe
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
Norway (left), Colorado (centre) and White Spruce cone
compariosn
Eastern White Pine - cone 8 to 20 cm - needles 5 to 15 cm - height to 30 m - Duffins Creek - November 2009
Colorado Spruce - cones 5 to 12 cm - needles 1.5 to 3 cm - height to 30 m - Humber Valley (James Gardens) - May 2009
Austrian Pines - seed cone to 8 cm - pollen cone to 3 cm - needles to 16 cm - height to 30 m - West Don Valley (Wilket Creek Park) - February 2010
Red Pine - cone 4 to 7 cm - needles 10 to 16 cm - height to 25 m - High Park - March 2012
Douglas-Fir - cones 10 to 20 cm - needles 2 to 3 cm - height to 60 m - Mount Pleasant Cemetery - March 2010
Scots Pine - seed cone to 7 cm - needles 4 to 8 cm - height to 30 m - High Park - December 2009
White Spruce - cones 3 to 6 cm - needles 1.5 to 2.5 cm - height to 25 m - West Don Valley (Sunnybrook Park) - April 2012
Norway Spruce - cones 10 to 18 cm - needles 1.5 to 2.5 cm - height to 40 m - Samuel Smith Park - November 2009
Spruce cone comparison: Norway (left), Colorado (centre) and White - Bluffers Park - February 2012
Eastern Hemlock
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Tsuga
Species: Canadensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
More Eastern Hemlock
Updated April 17 2016
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Perennial tree - also known as Canadian Hemlock - native
to eastern North America
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
Eastern Hemlock - cones 1 to 2 cm - needles 1 to 2 cm - height to 30 m - West Don Valley (Wilket Creek Park) - November 2013
European Larch
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)
Genus: Larix
Species: Decidua
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Pinopsida
More European Larch
Updated October 26 2015
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Perennial tree - secondary branches are drooping - cones
are ovoid - native to Europe -
deciduous conifer
Division: Coniferophyta (also Pinophyta) (Conifers)
European Larch - cones 2 to 4 cm - needles 2 to 5 cm - height to 30 m - Rouge Valley (Milne Park) - April 2010
Eastern Larch (Tamarack) - cones 1 to 2 cm - needles 2 to 5 cm - height to 25 m - Mount Pleasant Cemetery - October 2015
European (left) and Eastern Larch cone comparison
Larch cone comparison: European (left) and Eastern - Mount Pleasant Cemetery - October 2015