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Page Last Updated: September 21 2016
Smartweed / Buckwheat Family
11 species
Lady's Thumb
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Polygonum (Knotweed)
Species: Persicaria (also Vulgaris)
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Annual - mark on leaves was thought to resemble a lady's
thumbprint - wet habitats - native to Europe
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated Oct 31 2015
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Curled Dock
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Rumex
Species: Crispus
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Perennial - also known as Curly Dock, Yellow Dock - native
to Eurasia
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated February 12 2012
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Broad-leaved Dock
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Rumex
Species: Obtusifolius
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Perennial - also known as Bitter, Blunt-leaved or
Red-veined Dock -  native to Europe
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated May 8 2014
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Japanese Knotweed
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Species: Cuspidatum
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Perennial - also known as Japanese or Mexican Bamboo
(not closely related to Bamboo) - binomial name also
Fallopia japonica and others - native to Asia
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated March 23 2015
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Common Knotgrass
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Species: Aviculare
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Annual / Perennial - also known as Prostrate Knotweed,
Doorweed - native to Eurasia
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated January 12 2014
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Pale Smartweed
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Polygonum (Knotweed)
Species: Lapathifolium
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Annual - also known as Nodding or Dock-leaved
Smartweed, Curlytop Knotweed - native to North America
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated December 23 2011
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Pennsylvania? Smartweed
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Polygonum (Knotweed)
Species: Pensylvanicum?
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Annual - also known as Pennsylvania or Pink Knotweed,
Pinkweed - possibly terrestrial form of Water Smartweed (P.
amphibium - see below) - native to North America
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated December 23 2011
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Genus: Polygonum (Knotweed)
Genus: Polygonum (Knotweed)
Water / Swamp Smartweed
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Polygonum (Knotweed)
Species: Amphibium
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Perennial - also known as Water Knotweed - aquatic and
terrestrial forms - Water Smartweed (P. amphibium variety
stipulaceum) - Swamp (also Longroot) Smartweed (P.
amphibium variety emersum formerly P. coccineum) -
native to North America
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated September 6 2011
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Golden? Dock
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Rumex
Species: Maritimus?
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Annual / Biennial - also known as Maritime Dock - similar to
R. verticillatus (Swamp Dock) - native to Eurasia
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated March 8 2012
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Broad-leaved Dock
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Rumex
Species: Obtusifolius
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Perennial - also known as Bitter, Blunt-leaved or
Red-veined Dock -  native to Europe
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated March 16 2014
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Lady's Thumb - flower approx. 3 mm - raceme to 5 cm - leaves to 15 cm - height to 60 cm - West Don Valley (Sunnybrook Park) - September 2012
Curled Dock - flower approx. 4 mm - panicle to 60 cm - leaves 10 to 30 cm - height to 1.5 m - Beaver Creek (Richmond Hill) - August 2009
Broad-leaved Dock with Garlic Mustard - flower approx. 3 mm - leaves to 40 cm - height to 1.3 m - West Highland Creek (Thomson Memorial Park) - May 2013
Japanese Knotweed - flower 2 to 4 mm - fruit approx. 3 mm - leaves to 15 cm - height to 3 m - Lower Don Valley (Leaside) - September 2009
Common Knotgrass - flower approx. 4 mm - leaves to 2.5 cm - height to 60 cm - High Park - August 2011
Pale Smartweed - flower approx. 3 mm - raceme to 10 cm - leaves 5 to 20 cm - height to 1.5 m - Lower Don Valley (Crother's Woods) - September 2010
Pennsylvania? Smartweed - flower approx. 5 mm - raceme to 5 cm - leaves to 15 cm - height to 90 cm - Humber Bay Park - September 2011
Water / Swamp Smartweed - flower approx. 5 mm - raceme to 4 cm (Water), 15 cm (Swamp) - leaves approx. 15 cm - height to 1 m - Lower Don Valley (Brickworks) - September 2012
Golden? Dock - flower approx. 7 mm - leaves to 10 cm - height to 60 cm - Leslie Spit - September 2010
Broad-leaved Dock - flower approx. 3 mm - leaves to 40 cm - height to 1.3 m - Lower Don Valley (Crother's Woods) - June 2011
Russian Vine
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Species: Baldschuanicum
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Perennial - also known as Bukhara Fleeceflower, Silver
Lace Vine, Mile-a-Minute - binomial name also Fallopia
baldschuanica and others - native to Asia
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated August 30 2015
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Genus: Polygonum (Knotweed)
Russian Vine - flower approx. 1 cm - panicle to 15 cm - leaves to 10 cm - vine to 10 m - Sandy Bruce Park - July 2015
Black Bindweed
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Species: Convolvulus
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated October 28 2015
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Genus: Polygonum (Knotweed) - also Fallopia
Black Bindweed - flower approx. 4 mm - fruit approx. 5 mm - leaves to 7 cm - vine-like to 1.5 m - High Park - August 2011
Annual - also known as Wild Buckwheat - similar to
Climbing Buckwheat (Fallopia scandens) - leaves and
vine-like growth are similar to Convolvulus and Ipomoea
species in the
Morning Glory family - native to Europe, Asia
and northern Africa
Jumpseed
Order: Polygonales
Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed or Buckwheat  family)
Genus: Persicaria (formerly Polygonum)
Species: Virginiana (formerly Virginianum)
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Updated September 21 2016
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Annual / Perennial - many cultivars - native to eastern North
America
Jumpseed - flower approx. 3 mm - leaves to 15 cm - height to 1 m - Lower Don Valley (Todmorden Mills) - September 2016